Explain the Composition and powers of Grand National Assembly of Turkey

(1) Introduction

Turkey has remained a constitutional laboratory where tw state introduced bicameral legislature while the Constitutions of Ottoman Empire and the 1962 Constitution of modern Turkish kinds of legislature have been experienced. The 1876 Constitution unicameral legislature. The current Turkish Legislature has been 1921, 1924 and 1982 of modern Turkish state introduced established under the Constitution of 1982, and it consists of only one house that is Grand National Assembly.

(2) Grand National Assembly

Article 75 of the Turkish Constitution established the Grand National Assembly:

  • (i) Composition
  • (ii) Powers & functions

(i) Composition

It is composed of six hundred members:

  • (a) Deputies
  • (b) Tenure
  • (c) Elections
  • (d) Bureau

(a) Deputies

It members are called deputies.

(b) Tenure

Tenure of every Grand National Assembly is five years.

(c) Elections

Elections of Grand National Assembly are held after every five years:

  • (c-i) Universal suffrage
  • (c-ii) Direct elections
  • (c-iii) Deferment of elections

(c-i) Universal Suffrage

Its deputies are elected by universal suffrage.

(c-ii) Direct Elections

Its deputies are directly elected from eighty one provinces and eighty seven electoral districts.

(c-iii) Deferment Of Elections

If holding of new elections is impossible because of war, the Grand National Assembly can decide to defer elections for a year.

(d) Bureau

The bureau of the Grand National Assembly is composed of Speaker, four Vice-Speakers, Questers, and Secretaries:

  • (d-i) Elections
  • (d-ii) Terms
  • (d-iii) Sessions

(d-i) Elections

The Speaker is elected from among the members of the Grand National Assembly. Their elections are held twice within each term of the Grand National Assembly.

(x) Terms

The term of office of the Speaker, who is elected in the first round, is two years, and the term of office of the Speaker, who is elected in the second round, continues until the end of the legislative term of the Grand National Assembly.

(y) Sessions

The Speaker and Vice Speakers are to preside over the sessions of Grand National Assembly.

(ii) Powers & Functions

The Turkish Constitution describes the following powers and functions of the Grand National Assembly:

  • (a) Article 87
  • (b) Scrutiny of government
  • (c) Approval of developmental plans
  • (d) Adoption of rules of procedure
  • (e) Presidential decrees of state of emergency
  • (f) State of emergency
  • (g) Election of Speaker & Bureau members
  • (h) Election of Chief Ombudsperson
  • (j) Election of three members of Constitutional Court
  • (k) Election of members of Supreme Council of Radio & Television
  • (l) Election of President & members of Court of Accounts
  • (m) Election of seven members of Council of Judges Prosecutors
  • (n) Premature elections of Grand National Assembly & President
  • (o) Impeachment of President, deputies of President & ministers
  • (p) Lifting of parliamentary immunity
  • (q) Loss of membership
  • (r) Deployment of Turkish Armed Forces
  • (s) Foreign armed forces in Turkey
  • (t) Scrutiny of public economic enterprises
  • (u) Election of members of Board of Protection of Personal Data

(a) Article 87

Article 87 narrates its following powers and functions:

  • (a-i) Currency
  • (a-ii) Legislation
  • (a-iii) Declaration of war
  • (a-iv) Granting of amnesty & pardon
  • (a-v) Ratification of international treaty
  • (a-vi) Budget Bills & Final Account Bills
  • (a-vii) Powers & duties described in other articles

(a-i) Currency

It decides on issuing currency.

(a-ii) Legislation

It enacts, amends and repeals laws.

(a-iii) Declaration Of War

It decides on the declaration of war.

(a-iv) Granting Of Amnesty & Pardon

It decides on granting general amnesty and pardon.

(a-v) Ratification Of International Treaty

It approves the ratification of international treaties.

(a-vi) Budget Bills & Final Account Bills

It debates and adopts the Budget Bills and the Final Account Bills.

(a-vii) Powers & Duties Described In Other Articles

It exercises the powers and carries out the duties, which have been described in other articles of the Constitution.

(b) Scrutiny Of Government

It scrutinizes the government.

(c) Approval Of Developmental Plans

It approves developmental plans.

(d) Adoption Of Rules Of Procedure

It adopts its rules of procedure.

(e) Presidential Decrees Of State Of Emergency

It approves, amends and rejects presidential decrees of state of emergency.

(f) State Of Emergency

It approves a decision on a state of emergency, extends it duration to four months at every turn, and removes a state of emergency.

(g) Election Of Speaker & Bureau Members

It elects its Speaker and Bureau members.

(h) Election Of Chief Ombudsperson

It elects the Chief Ombudsperson.

(j) Election Of Three members Of Constitutional Court

It elects three members out of fifteen members of the Constitutional Court.

(k) Election Of Members Of Supreme Council Of Radio & Television

It elects the members of the Supreme Council of Radio and Television.

(l) Election Of President & Members Of Court Of Accounts

It elects the President and the members of the Court of Accounts.

(m) Election Of Seven Members Of Council Of Judges & Prosecutors

It elects seven members out of thirteen members of the Council of Judges and Prosecutors.

(n) Premature Elections Of Grand National Assembly & President

It decides to renew its elections and the election of the President of the Republic prematurely.

(o) Impeachment Of President, Deputies Of President & Ministers

It impeaches the President, deputies of the President and ministers.

(p) Lifting Of Parliamentary Immunity

It Lifts parliamentary immunity.

(q) Loss Of Membership

It decides on the loss of membership.

(r) Deployment Of Turkish Armed Forces

It permits the deployment of Turkish Armed Forces abroad.

(s) Foreign Armed Forces In Turkey

It admits the presence of foreign armed forces in Turkey.

(t) Scrutiny Of Public Economic Enterprises

It scrutinizes public economic enterprises.

(u) Election Of Members Of Board Of Protection Of Personal Data

It elects the members of the Board of the Protection of Personal Data.

(3) Conclusion

It can be finally stated that the Grand National Assembly exercises several powers and performs various function. It uses its legislative power on behalf of the Turkish nation, and this right is inalienable. However, the Turkish Constitution is the source of its powers and functions. It is to exercise its powers and perform its functions only in compliance with the principles that have been described in the Constitution.

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