Crime detection is a process that is comprised of three phases. The three stages of detecting crime include the discovery of a committed crime, identification of suspects, and the gathering of evidence sufficient to charge the suspects in a court of law.
(2) Crime Detection
(i) Criminal Activity
Crime detection can be defined as a process of uncovering criminal activity.
(ii) Reported Crime & Evidence
Crime detection can be defined as a process of verifying reported crime and acquiring evidence in order to identify and prosecute its culprits.
(3) Agencies Of Crime Detection
Followings are agencies of crime detection:
- (i) Formal agencies
- (ii) Informal agencies
(i) Formal Agencies
Formal agencies of crime detection are law and government agencies. They include police, prosecution, court, and prison department. These agencies are to determine the crime.
(ii) Informal Agencies
Informal agencies of crime detection are moral and social institutions. They include family, neighborhood, peers and religion. They are to deter the illegal behavior.
(4) Techniques Of Crime Detection
Different techniques are available for crime detection:
- (i) Fingerprinting
- (ii) Ballistic examination
- (iii) Surveillance
- (iv) Forensic serology
- (v) Electronic facial identification technique
Fingerprinting is a technique of crime detection:
- (a) Impression of friction ridges
- (b) Moisture & grease on finger
- (c) Method of forensic science
(a) Impression Of Friction Ridges
A fingerprint is an impression that is left by friction ridges of a human finger.
(b) Moisture & Grease On Finger
Moisture and grease on a human finger result in fingerprint on surface such as glass or metal.
(c) Method Of Forensic Science
Recovery of partial fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science.
(ii) Ballistic Examination
Bailistic examination is a technique of crime detection:
- (a) Forensic firearm examination
- (b) Specialists
- (c) Registered owner of weapon
(a) Forensic Firearm Examination
Forensic firearm examination is conducted for ballistic examination: forensic firearmxamination is the forensic process of examining characteristics of firearms and any cartridges or bullets that have been left behind at the crime scene.
Specialists in this field are tasked with linking the bullets and cartridges to weapons and weapons to individuals.
(c) Registered Owner Of Weapon
Obliterated serial numbers can be raised and recorded in an attempt to find the registered owner of the weapon.
Surveillance is a technique of crime detection:
- (a) Monitoring
- (b) Observation from distance
- (c) Simple technical methods
It is the monitoring of behavior, activities or information for the purpose of influencing, managing or directing.
(b) Observation From Distance
It can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment like closed circuit television or by means of interception of electronically transmitted information like internet traffic.
(c) Simple Technical Methods
It can also include simple technical methods like human intelligence gathering and postal interception.
(iv) Forensic Serology
Forensic serology is a technique of crime detection:
- (a) Detection, identification, classification & study
- (b) DNA analysis & bloodstain pattern analysis
(a) Detection, Identification, Classification & Study
Forensic serology is the detection, identification, classification and study of various bodily fluids such as blood, semen, salvia, urine, breast milk, vomit, fecal matter and perspiration. It is also the detection, identification, classification and study of relationship of these bodily fluids to a crime scene
(b) DNA Analysis & Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
DNA analysis and bloodstain analysis can also be carried out in forensic serology.
(v) Electronic Facial Identification Technique
Electronic facial identification technique is also a technique of crime detection: it is a computer-based method of producing facial composites of a wanted criminal.
(5) Problems Of Crime Detection
Followings are problems of crime detection:
- (i) Lack of knowledge
- (ii) Biased investigation
- (iii) Lack of professionalism
- (iv) Unnecessary delay
- (v) Improper documentation
- (vi) Lack of observation
- (vii) Improper chain of custody
- (viii) Lack of honesty
(i) Lack Of Knowledge
If knowledge, which is required to conduct investigation, lacks, such lack leads towards poor crime detection.
(ii) Biased Investigation
Biased investigation never gives better results regarding crime detection.
(iii) Lack Of Professionalism
If there is lack of professionalism among those, when conduct crime detection, there will be no proper crime detection.
(iv) Unnecessary Delay
Unnecessary delay is a problem to get better results in crime detection.
(v) Improper Documentation
If all the concerned aspects of a crime are not properly documented, there will be no proper crime detection.
(vi) Lack Of Observation
Lack of observation always leads towards poor crime detection.
(vii) Improper Chain Of Custody
Chain of custody is the process of documentation of evidence. Improper chain of custody always results into poor crime detection.
(viii) Lack Of Honesty
If there is lack of honesty among those, who conduct crime detection, there will be no proper crime detection.
It can be finally stated that crime detection begins with the discovery of a crime scene and proceeds through the process of evidence collection, identification and analysis. The prevention and detection of crime depends on the communication between community and enforcement agencies.