What is criminology Explain its Scope, nature and difference between Crime, Criminology & Criminal Law?

(1) Introduction

Criminology includes all aspects of crime and law enforcement. It is the study of crime from social view. There is no universally accepted definition of criminology. In simple words, it can be defined as a study that includes all the subject matters, which are necessary to understand crime, prevention of crime and punishment and treatment of crime.

(2) Definitions

(a) Crime

(a-i) Literal Meaning

Crime was originated from a Latin expression. This Latin expression is “Krimos”, which means social order. In simple words, crime means an act that is against social order and is condemnable.

(a-ii) Social Meaning

Crime can be defined as a form of deviance from social norms. It is, in fact, a deviant behaviour against social norms.

(a-iii) Legal Meaning

(u) Punishable Act

Crime can be defined as an act that is punishable by law.

(w) Commission Of Act

Crime can be defined as an act that is committed in violation of public law, which forbids this act.

(x) Omission Of Act

Crime can be defined as an act that is omitted in violation of public law, which commands this act.

(y) Forbidden Act

Crinie can be defined as an act that is forbidden by law and revolts to moral sentiments of the society.

(z) Disobedience Or Violation Of Law

Crime can be defined as disobedience or violation of law.

 

(b) Criminology

(b-i) Literal Meaning

Criminology is derived from a Latin word and Greek word. The Latin word is “crimen” that means “crime” and the Greek term is “logos” that means “to study”. Therefore, criminology means study of

(b-ii) Study

Criminology can be defined as study of crime, its prevention and punishment.

(b-iii) Scientific Study

Criminology can be defined as scientific study of crime and criminals.

(b-iv) Academic Discipline

Criminology can be defined as an academic discipline, which uses scientific methods to study nature, extent, cause and control of crime and criminal behaviour.

(b-v) Interdisciplinary Science

Criminology is interdisciplinary science that collects and analyzes date on crime and criminal behaviour.

(c) Criminal Law

(c-i) Body Of Rules & Regulations

Criminal law can be defined as a body of rules and regulations that defines and specifies offence, punishment for offence, and procedure to deal with offence.

(c-ii) Substantive Law & Procedural Law

Criminal law is a law that consists of substantive law and procedural law: substantive laws defines and specifies offence and its punishment while procedure law provides procedure to deal with offence.

(3) Nature Of Criminology

Nature of criminology can be explained in the following words:

  • (i) Criminology is not a science
  • (ii) Criminology is a science

(i) Criminology Is Not A Science

Some scholars do not consider criminology a science due to following reasons:

  • (a) Systematic study
  • (b) Capacity
  • (c) Principles
  • (d) Universal validity

(a) Systematic Study

Science is a systematic study of any subject. As criminology is not such systematic study, therefore it is not science.

(b) Capacity

Science has capacity to establish relationship between causes and consequences. As criminology does not have such capacity, therefore it is not science.

(c) Principles

There are certainty and universality of principles in science. As there are no such certainty and universality in criminology, therefore it is not science.

(d) Universal Validity

Science has universal validity. As criminology has not acquired universal validity, therefore it is not science.

(ii) Criminology Is A Science

Other scholars believe that criminology is a science due to following reasons:

  • (a) Applied science
  • (b) Social science
  • (c) Dynamic
  • (d) Nationalistic

(a) Applied Science

Criminology is a applied science: it has established universally accepted principles and concepts, and its established principles and concepts are also used by other subjects.

(b) Social Science

Criminology is a social science: it studies crime as a social phenomenon. Crime is a social problem that has great impact on the society.

(c) Dynamic

Criminology is dynamic: its concepts and their applications adapt to changing time and circumstances.

(d) Nationalistic

Criminology is nationalistic: criminology takes into consideration the history, culture, social norms and laws of a country.

(4) Scope Of Criminology Scope of criminology can be explained in the following words:

  • (i) Crime & criminals
  • (ii) Criminal laws
  • (iii) Other sciences
  • (iv) Process & measures

(i) Crime & Criminals

Its scope extends to the study of causes of crime and development of criminals.

(ii) Criminal Laws

It scope extends to the study of origin and development of laws.

(iii) Other Sciences

Its scope extends to the study of other sciences that examine criminal behaviour:

  • (a) Criminal sociology
  • (b) Criminal psychiatry
  • (c) Criminal ecology
  • (d) Criminal physical anthropology
  • (e) Epidemiology
  • (f) Criminal demography
  • (g) Victimology
  • (h) Criminal epidemiology

(a) Criminal Sociology

Criminal sociology is the study of effects of social conditions on crimes and criminals.

(b) Criminal Psychiatry

Criminal psychiatry is the study of human mind in relation to criminality.

(c) Criminal Ecology

Criminal ecology is the study of criminality in relation to the criminal’s physical and social environment.

(d) Criminal Demography

Criminal demography is the study of relationship between criminality and population.

(e) Criminal Physical Anthropology

Criminal physical anthropology is the study of criminality in relation to physical constitution of human beings.

(f) Victimology

Victimology is the study of role of the victim in the commission of a crime.

(g) Criminal Epidemiology

Criminal epidiomology is the study of relationship between environment and criminality.

(iv) Process & Measures

It scope extends to the study of various processes and measures that a society adopts for violation of criminal laws.

These processes and measures include the followings:

Detection and investigation of crimes

Arrest and apprehension of criminals

Prosecution and conviction of criminal in judicial proceeding

Enforcement of laws, decree and regulations Administration and police and other law enforcement

agencies

Maintenance of recreational facilities and other activities to prevent crimes and criminal behaviour.

Reformation process and activities

(5) Importance Of Criminology

As Subject Importance of criminology as a subject can be explained in the following words:

  • (i) Behaviors of people
  • (ii) Reforming role
  • (iii) Causation of crime
  • (iv) Penal policy
  • (v) Legal systems
  • (vi) Findings
  • (vii) Scientific & technical knowledge
  • (viii) Criminal instincts
  • (ix) Orderly society
  • (x) Stability in human values

(i) Behaviors of people

Criminology is important because it studies various behaviours of people.

(ii) Reforming Role

Criminology is important because it has historically played a reforming role in relation to criminal law and criminal justice system. Even it is also helpful to reform the criminals.

(iii) Causation Of Crime

Criminology is important because it gives knowledge of causation of crime that leads to criminal behaviour.

(iv) Penal Policy

Criminology is important because its principles serve as effective guidelines for formulation of penal policy.

(v) Legal systems

Criminology is important because it gives knowledge of different legal systems.

(vi) Findings

Criminology is important because it has produced findings that have influenced legislators, judges, lawyers, prosecutors, prison officials and probation officers to make better understanding of crime and criminals.

(vii) Scientific & Technical Knowledge

Criminology is important because it helps to improve scientific and technical knowledge that is  necessary for control and prevention of crime.

(viii) Criminal Instincts

Criminology is important because it suggests the ways for elimination of criminal instincts in the society.

(ix) Orderly Society

Criminology is important because it is essential for orderly society: it describes effective methods by which crime can be controlled so as to establish peace and order in the society.

(x) Stability in Human Values

Criminology is important because it tells the ways of bringing stability in human values.

(6) Difference Between Crime, Criminology & Criminal Law

Crime, criminology and criminal law can be differentiated in the following way:

  • (i) Crime
  • (ii) Criminology
  • (iii) Criminal law

(i) Crime

(a) Literal Meaning

Crime was originated from a Latin expression. This Latin expression is “Krimos”, which means social order. In simple words, crime means an act that is against social order and is condemnable.

(b) Social Meaning

Crime can be defined as a form of deviance from social norms. It is, in fact, a deviant behaviour against social norms.

(c) Legal Meaning

(c-i) Punishable Act

Crime can be defined as an act that is punishable by law.

(c-ii) Commission Of Act

Crime can be defined as an act that is committed in violation of public law, which forbids this act.

(c-iii) Omission Of Act

Crime can be defined as an act that is omitted in violation of law, which commands this act.

(c-iv) Forbidden Act

Crime can be defined as an act that is forbidden by law and revolts to moral sentiments of the society.

(c-v) Disobedience Or Violation Of Law

Crime can be defined as disobedience or violation of law.

(ii) Criminology

(a) Literal Meaning

Criminology is derived from a Latin word and Greek word. The Latin word is “crimen” that means “crime” and the Greek term is “logos” that means “to study”. Therefore  criminology means study of crime.

(b) Study

Criminology can be defined as study of crime, its prevention and punishment.

(c) Scientific Study

Criminology can be defined as scientific study of crime and criminals.

(d) Academic Discipline

Criminology can be defined as an academic discipline, which uses scientific methods to study nature, extent, cause and control of crime and criminal behaviour.

(e) Interdisciplinary Science

Criminology is interdisciplinary science that collects and analyzes date on crime and criminal behaviour.

(iii) Criminal Law

(a) Body Of Rules & Regulations

Criminal law can be defined as a body of rules and regulations that defines and specifies offence, punishment for offence, and procedure to deal with offence.

(b) Substantive Law & Procedural Law

Criminal law is a law that consists of substantive law and procedural law: substantive laws defines and specifies offence and its punishment while procedure law provides procedure to deal with offence.

(7) Relation Between Criminology & Law

Relation between criminology and law can be explained in the following words:

  • (i) Criminology
  • (ii) Law

(i) Criminology

(a) Literal Meaning

Criminology is derived from a Latin word and Greek word. The Latin word is “crimen” that means “crime” and the Greek term is “logos” that means “to study”. Therefore, criminology means study of crime.

(b) Study

Criminology can be defined as study of crime, its prevention and punishment.

(c) Scientific Study

Criminology can be defined as scientific study of crime and criminals.

(d) Academic Discipline

Criminology can be defined as an academic discipline, which uses scientific methods to study nature, extent, cause and control of crime and criminal behaviour.

(e) Interdisciplinary Science

Criminology is interdisciplinary science that collects and analyzes date on crime and criminal behaviour.

(ii) Law

(a) Body Of Rules

Law means a body of rules, which are determined and enforced by a sovereign political authority.

(b) Codes & Rules

Law is name of those codes and rules, which are applied indiscriminately to every person.

(c) Product Of General Consciousness

Law is a product of the general consciousness of the people.

(d) Codes

Law is name of those codes, which lead human attitude.

(e) System Of Rules & Regulations

Law can be described as a system of rules and regulations,” which a country or society recognizes as binding on its citizens, which the authorities enforce, and violation of which attracts punitive action.

(8) Theories From Psychological School Of Criminology

(i) Sigmund Freud’s Theory

Psychoanalytic theory of crime causation is associated Sigmund Freud’s work:

  • (a) Psychopaths
  • (b) Demerits of psychopaths
  • (c) Psychoanalysis

(a) Psychopaths

The people, who have unresolved deep-seated problems, are psychopaths. They are also called antisocial personalities or sociopaths.

(b) Demerits Of Psychopaths

Followings are demerits of psychopaths:

  • (b-i) Sense of guilt
  • (b-ii) Subjective conscience
  • (b-iii) Sense of right & wrong
  • b-iv) Relationships with other people)
  • (b-v) Empathy

(b-i) Sense Of Guilt

Psychopaths have no sense of guilt.

(b-ii) Subjective Conscience

Psychopaths have no subjective conscience.

(b-iii) Sense Of Right & Wrong

Psychopaths have no sense of right and wrong.

(b-iv) Relationships With Other People

Psychopaths have difficulty in forming relationships with other people.

(b-v) Empathy

It is difficult for psychopaths to empathize with other people.

(c) Psychoanalysis

(c-i) Meaning

Psychoanalysis is defined as a set of psychological theories and therapeutic methods, which have their origin in the work and theories of Sigmund Freud.

(c-ii) Explanation

Psychoanalysis can be explained in the following words:

  • (x) Key assumptions
  • (y) Aim
  • (z) Criticism

(x) Key Assumptions

Followings are key assumptions of psychoanalysis:

  • (x-i) Unconscious thoughts, feelings, desires & memories
  • (x-ii) Psychological problems
  • (x-iii) Hidden disturbances
  • (x-iv) Typical causes
  • (x-v) Cure
  • (x-vi) Treatment

(x-i) Unconscious Thoughts, Feelings, Desires & Memories

All people possess unconscious thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories.

(x-ii) Psychological Problems

Psychological problems are rooted in the unconscious mind.

(x-iii) Hidden Disturbances

Manifest symptoms are caused by hidden disturbances.

(x-iv) Typical Causes

Typical causes include unresolved issues during development or repressed trauma.

(x-v) Cure

Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations: in this way, they gain insight.

(x-vi) Treatment

Treatment focuses on bringing the repressed conflict to consciousness, where the client can deal with it.

(y) Aim

The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences.

 (z) Criticism

Following is the criticism against psychoanalytic theory:

  • (z-i) Environmental circumstances
  • (z-ii) Untestable psychotherapy

(z-i) Environmental Circumstances

Psychoanalytic theory ignores environmental circumstances.

(z-ii) Untestable Psychotherapy

Much of theoretical structure of psychotherapy is scientifically untestable.

(ii) Erik Erikson’s Theory

Erik Erikson was influenced by Sigmund Feud’s ideas, but he presented his own different theory:

  • (a) Eight stages of psychosocial development
  • (b) Building block
  • (c) Gradual evolution of each stage
  • (d) Optimal time
  • (e) Fully functioning personality

(a) Eight stages of psychosocial development

Erik Erikson identified eight stages of psychosocial development of human being:

  • (a-i) Infancy
  • (a-ii) Early childhood
  • (a-iii) Play age
  • (a-iv) School age
  • (a-v) Adolescence
  • (a-vi) Young adulthood
  • (a-vii) Adulthood
  • (a-viii) Maturity or old age

(a-i) Infancy

Infancy is the first stage of psychosocial development of human being:

  • (s) Time period
  • (t) Relationship
  • (u) Dependency
  • (v) Strength
  • (x) Key event
  • (y) Conflict
  • (z) Goal

(s) Time Period

Time period of infancy is first year or year and a half of the life.

(t) Relationship

The major relationship exists between baby and mother.

(u) Dependency

Baby is completely dependent on other especially mother.”

(w) Strength

The basic strength is hope. If proper balance is achieved, the child develops the virtue of hope.

(x) Key Event

Feeding is the key event of this stage.

(y) Conflict

Baby faces a conflict, and this conflict is trust versus mistrust:

  • (y-i) Trust
  • (y-ii) Mistrust

(y-i) Trust

Trust is established when baby is given adequate warmth touching, love and physical dependable and reliable care.

(y-ii) Mistrust

Mistrust is caused by inadequate and unpredictable care by cold, indifferent and rejecting parents, who are undependable, unpredictable and dangerous too.

(z) Goal

The goal is to develop trust without completely eliminating the capacity for mistrust.

(a-ii) Early Childhood

Early childhood is the second stage of psychosocial development of human being:

  • (t) Time period
  • (u) Relationship
  • (v) Autonomy & independence
  • (w) Strength
  • (x) Key event
  • (y) Conflict

(t) Time Period

Time period of early childhood is from eighteen months to Three years.

(u) Relationship

The major relationship exists between child and parents.

(v) Autonomy & Independence

Child gains some autonomy and independence: he begins to make choices and express his will.

(w) Strength

Will power or determination is the basic strength. If the child gets proper, positive balance of autonomy and shame and doubt, he develops the virtue of will power or determination.

(x) Key Event

Toilet training of the child is the key event of this stage.

(y) Conflict

Child faces a conflict, and this conflict is autonomy versus shame and doubt:

  • (z-i) Autonomy
  • (z-ii) Shame & doubt

(z-i) Autonomy

If child is encouraged, he develops a sense of autonomy and independence.

(z-ii) Shame & Doubt

If child is discouraged or if there is something like laughing at his efforts or activities, he develops a sense of shame and doubt: he feels deeply ashamed about his acts and doubts his abilities.

(a-iii) Play Age

Play age is the third stage of psychosocial development of human being:

  • (s) Time period
  • (t) Relationship (1)
  • (u) Strength
  • (v) Key event
  • (w) Gradual awareness
  • (x) Conflict
  • (y) Goal

(s) Time Period

Time period of play age is from four to five or six years.

(t) Relationship

The major relationship exists between child and his family: the child’s family influences him to learn how he can be responsible for his behaviour and acts.

(u) Strength

A good balance leads to the psychosocial strengths of purpose.

(w) Key Event

Independence of child is key event of this stage.

(x) Gradual Awareness

The child gradually becomes aware of the various roles that his environment presents.

(y) Conflict

Child faces a conflict, and this conflict is initiative versus guilt:

  • (y-i) Initiative
  • (y-ii) Guilt

(y-i) Initiative

Child begins to explore his social and physical world and discovers what he can accomplish. In this way, he develops a sense of initiative or positive attitude.

(y-ii) Guilt

Guilt can occur when parents criticize the child, prevent him from playing or discourage his question.

(z) Goal

The goal is that there must be balance between initiative and guilt to have moral judgment.

(a-iv) School Age

School age is the fourth stage of psychosocial development of human being:

  • (t) Time period
  • (u) Relationship
  • (v) Social & academic demands
  • (w) Strength
  • (x) Key event
  • (y) Conflict

(t) Time Period

Time period of school age is from six to eleven or twelve years.

(u) Relationship

The major relationship exists between child and his neighbours and teachers. The child enters a new world of neighbourhood and school.

(v) Social & Academic Demands

The child has to cope with new social and academic demands.

(w) Strength

If there is a proper balance between industry and inferiority, the child develops a virtue of competence.

(x) Key Event

School is the key event during this stage.

(y) Conflict

Child faces a conflict, and this conflict is industry versus inferiority:

Industry

  • (z-i) Industry
  • (z-ii) Inferiority

(z-i) Industry

Industry occurs due to a sense of competence: it happens when child is praised for productive activities.

(z-ii) Inferiority

Inferiority occurs due to a weak sense of incapability to take responsibility: it happens when child is not praised, rather his activities and efforts are declared bad and inadequate

(a-v) Adolescence

Adolescence is the fifth stage of psychosocial development of human being:

  • (u) Time period
  • (v) Relationship
  • (w) Different roles
  • (x) Strength
  • (y) Key event
  • (z) Conflict

(u) Time Period

Time period of adolescence is from twelve to eighteen years.

(v) Relationship

Child’s relationship exists with his peers and role models.

(w) Different Roles

Child learns different roles.

(x)  Strength

If child successfully passes this stage, he gains the virtue of fidelity.

(y) Key Event

Peer relationships are key event of this stage.

(z) Conflict

Child faces a conflict, and this conflict is identity versus role confusion:

  • (z-i) Identity
  • (z-ii) Role confusion

(z-i) Identity

Identity involves experiences, relationships, beliefs, values and memories that make up a person’s sense of self. Formation and shaping of identity develop commitment, self-confidence and sense of independence in the child.

(z-ii) Role Confusion

Child, who is not allowed to explore and find different identities, faces role confusion, and such child, remaine disappointed and confused about his own place in life

(a-vi) Young Adulthood

Young adulthood is the sixth stage of psychosocial development of human being:

  • (u) Time period
  • (v) Relationship
  • (w) Family
  • (x) Strength
  • (y) Key event
  • (z) Conflict

(u) Time period

Time period of young adulthood is from eighteen to forty years.

(v) Relationship

Person’s relationship exists with friends and partners.

(w) Family

Person makes family during this stage.

(x) Strength

If a person successfully passes this stage, he gets the virtue of love that remains with him for rest of his life.

(y) Key Event

Love relationship is key event of this stage.

(z) Conflict

Person faces a conflict, and this conflict is intimacy versus isolation:

  • (z-i) Intimacy
  • (z-ii) Isolation

(z-i) Intimacy

Person develops a sense of intimacy, and intimacy means ability to care about others and to share experiences with them. Such intimacy originates strong relationships. (z-i) قربت

(z-ii) Isolation

If sense of intimacy is not acquired, a sense of isolation develops: the person feels loneliness and does not take care of life.

(a-vii) Adulthood

Adulthood is the seventh stage of psychosocial development of human being:

  • (u) Time period
  • (v) Relationship.
  • (w) Primary task
  • (x) Strength
  • (y) Key event
  • (z) Conflict

(u) Time Period

Time period of adulthood is from forty to sixty or sixty five years.

(v) Relationship

Person’s relationship exists with his spouse and children.

(w) Primary Task

Primary task of the person is to contribute to his family and society and to guide the future generation.

(x) Strength

If a person successfully reaches this stage, he gets capacity of caring that serves him through the rest of his life.

(y) Key Event

Parenting is key event of this stage.

(z) Conflict

Person faces a conflict, and this conflict is generativity and stagnation:

  • (z-i) Generativity
  • (z-ii) Stagnation

(z-i) Generativity

Person develops develops a sense of generativity: he develops an interest in guiding the next generation. He remains busy in social involvement and parenting.

(z-ii) Stagnation

A person, who fails to develop a sense of generativity, suffers from stagnation: he is only concerned with his own interests, needs and comforts.

(a-viii) Maturity Or Old Age

Maturity or old age is the eighth and last stage of psychosocial development of human being:

  • (v) Time period Relationship
  • (w) Past
  • (x) Strength
  • (y) Key event
  • (z) Conflict

(t) Time Period

Time period of maturity or old age is from sixty or sixty five years till death.

(u) Relationship

Mankind is relationship in this stage.

(w) Past

Person looks back his life and judge it.

(x) Strength

A person, who approaches death without fear, has the strength that is called wisdom.

(y) Key Event

Person’s reflection, his acceptance of life and his satisfaction regarding the use of his abilities and talents during his life are key event of this stage.

(z) Conflict

Person faces a conflict, and this conflict is integrity versus

(e) Fully Functioning Personality

When all the stages have unfolded according to the plan, a fully functioning personality comes into existence.

(iii) Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory

Lawrence Kohlberg presented his theory of moral development. He, in fact, theorized three levels of moral reasoning. Each level has two stages of moral development. In this way, he presented six stages of moral development:

  • (a) Pre-conventional level
  • (b) Conventional level
  • (c) Post-conventional level

(a) Pre-Conventional Level

In pre-conventional level, moral reasoning is external rewards and punishments:

based on

  • (a-i) Sense of right & wrong
  • (a-ii) Control of morality
  • (a-iii) First stage        
  • (a-iv) Second stage

(a-i) Sense of Right & Wrong

Punishments and rewards dominate sense of right and wrong.

(a-ii) Control Of Morality

Morality is externally controlled.

(a-iii) First Stage

First stage of moral development is punishment/obedience:

  • (x) Punishment
  • (y) Obedience

(x) Punishment

Behaviour, which results in punishment, is bad behaviour.

(y) Obedience

Rules of authority figures must be respected.

(a-iii) Second Stage

Second stage of moral development is reward: behaviour, which results in reward, is good behaviour.

(b) Conventional Level

In conventional level, laws and rules are upheld simply because they are laws and rules:

  • (b-i) Needs of laws & society
  • (b-ii) Good behaviour
  • (b-iii) Views of others
  • (b-iv) Avoidance of blame
  • (a-v) Approval
  • (a-vi) Third stage
  • (a-vii) Fourth stage

(b-i) Needs Of Laws & Society

Needs of laws and society are the defining features.

(b-ii) Good Behaviour

Good behaviour is motivated to maintain the affection and approval of friends and relatives.

(b-iii) Views Of Others

Views of others matter..

(b-iv) Avoidance Of Blame

Blame must be avoided.

(a-v) Approval

Approval of friends and relatives is needed.

(a-vi) Third Stage

Third stage of moral development is good intentions it is necessary to behave in the ways that conform to good behaviour.

(a-vii) Fourth Stage

Fourth stage of moral development is obedience to authority: it is essential for a person to do his duty.

(c) Post-Conventional Level

Reasoning is based on personal moral standards:

  • (c-i) Personal Moral Beliefs & Values
  • (c-ii) Most of adults
  • (c-iii) Fifth stage
  • (c-iv) Sixth stage

(c-i) Personal Moral Beliefs & Values

Personal moral beliefs and values are given importance.

(c-ii) Most Of Adults –

Most of adults do not reach this level.

(c-iii) Fifth Stage

Fifth stage of moral development is difference between legal and moral rights. Rights of others can override obedience to law or rules. Therefore, it is recognized that laws can sometimes, broken.

(c-iv) Sixth Stage

Sixth stage of moral development is individual principles of conscience.

(9) Conclusion

It can be finally stated criminology is the scientific study of crime. In a broad sense, criminology is the study of lawmaking, law-breaking, and the response to law-breaking. This broad definition can be divided into two parts: law-breaking is the first part and this first part discusses the nature, extent and causes of crime, and criminal justice is the second part and this second part focuses on the response to criminal behavior.

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