The concept of national security arose in the seventeenth century during the Thirty Years War in Europe and the Civil War in England. The Peace of Westphalia established the idea that the nation-state had sovereign control not only over its domestic but also over its external security. This idea had become the basis of concept of national security. The Turkish Constitution established a constitutional body for the purpose of national security, and this constitutional body is National Security Council.
(2) National Security Council
Article 118 of the Turkish Constitution establishes National Security Council:
- (i) Composition
- (ii) Chairpersonship (ii)
- (iii) Agenda
- (iv) Concerned ministers & persons
- (v) National security policy
- (vi) Submission of advisory decisions & views
- (vii) Organization & duties of General Secretariat
- (viii) Evaluation of decisions
The Turkish National Security Council is composed of the President, the Vice-Presidents, Ministers of Justice, National Defence, Internal Affairs, and Foreign Affairs, the Chief of the General Staff and the commanders of the Land, Naval and Air Forces.
The National Security Council works under the chairpersonship of the President. However, the National Security Council convenes under the chairpersonship of the Vice-President in the absence of the President.
The President formulates the agenda of the National Security Council. However, he is to take into account the proposals of the Vice-Presidents and the Chief of the General Staff.
(iv) Concerned Ministers & Persons
Concerned ministers and other persons can be invited to meetings of the National Security Council and their views can be heard. However, it all depends on the particulars of the agenda.
(v) National Security Policy
The National Security Council takes advisory decisions with regard to the formulation, determination, and implementation of the national security policy of the state.
(vi) Submission Of Advisory Decisions & Views
The National Security Council submits to the President its advisory decisions. It also submits to the President its views that are on ensuring the necessary coordination.
(vii) Evaluation Of Decisions
The President evaluates decisions of the National Security Council, which are about the measures that it deems necessary for the preservation of the existence and independence of the state, the integrity and indivisibility of the country, and the peace and security of society.
(viii) Organization & Duties Of General Secretariat
Presidential decree regulates the organization and duties of the General Secretariat of the National Security Council.
It can be finally stated that earlier National security was limited to military security. But now the national security has not remained limited only to military security. In other words, it can be mentioned that its scope has now become vast; it includes political security, economic security, energy security; environmental security and even health, women’s and food security..