Communist Party of China carries out democratic dictatorship in China. In fact, it controls the entire political system and structure of China. Prominent state institutions including National People’s Congress, State Council and Central Military Commission remain under its control. As the General Secretary of Communist Party is not only the Chairman of the party, but is also the President of China, therefore the President plays an influential role in decision making.
(2) Role Of President In Decision Making in China
The Constitution of China has limited the powers of President in papers. However, the reality is that the President has emerged as the most powerful figure:
- (i) Political system
- (ii) Governing structure
- (iii) National People’s Congress
- (iv) State Council
- (v) Military
- (v) Judiciary
(i) Domination Over Political System
The Communist Party dominates all branches of Chinese political system. The position of its General Secretary is the most influential one. As the President holds the office of General Secretary, therefore he exercises influence on decision making in all branches of Chinese political system.
(ii) Governing Structure
The Communist Party is the power center that controls judiciary and parliamentary meetings. Being the leader of the state institutions, every government department, military force, Communist Party, the President remains infidential over decision making process in such governing structure.
(iii) National People’s Congress
National People’s Congress is a unicameral legislature of China. It is to legislate for China. Although all of its members are not the Communist Party members, yet it is dominated by the Communist Party. The Communist Party’s domination over the legislature leads towards effective role of the President in law-making process.
(iv) State Council
State Council is cabinet or central executive of China. Its head is Premier (Prime Minister). National People’s Congress decides on the successful candidate from the nomination by the President for the premier. In this way, the President also plays an important role in decision making process of State Council.
In theory, the military of China reports to National People’s Congress through Central Military Commission. But in practice, the President as chief of the Communist Party heads the military. Therefore, the President has an influential role in decision making regarding armed forces of the country.
The Chinese leadership claims that China is ruled by law. However, the reality is that China is ruled by the Communist Party. Being head of the Communist Party, the President remains influential over the judiciary.
It can be finally stated that the Constitution provides a system of checks and balances of Chines style: the President does not enjoy unlimited powers. There exists a collective leadership principle. This principle means that the President has to win the consensus from his colleagues in the Communist Party Politburo Standing Committee for major decisions.