What Turkish ideology? Explain in detail

(1) Introduction

In this modern world, every state needs an ideology for its creation, its growth and achievement of its goal. Ideology is considered heart of a nation; it is powerful system of ideas and explains how the concerned nation would be governed under a certain social and political order. It was an ideology that worked for the birth of modern Turkey and is still influencing its growth. That ideology is known as Kemalism.

(2) Turkish ideology

Turkish ideology is based on six principles or arrows or Mustafa Kamal Ataturk:

  • (i) Republicanism
  • (ii) Nationalism
  • (iii) Populism
  • (iv) Statism
  • (v) Secularism
  • (vi) Reformism

(i) Republicanism

Republicanism is the first principle of the Turkish ideology, and it promoted the concept of Republic, democracy and national sovereignty:

  • (a) Republic
  • (b) Democracy
  • (c) National sovereignty

(a) Republic

(a-i) Ataturk’s View

The most suitable administration system for Turkey is Republic.

(a-ii) Turkish Constitution

(x) Article 1

Article I has settled that the state of Turkey is a Republic.

(y) Article 5

According to Article 5, one of the fundamental aims and duties of the state is to safeguard indivisibility of the Republic.

(b) Democracy

(b-i) Ataturk’s View

Democracy is the only vehicle of the regime.

(b-ii) Turkish Constitution

(x) Article 2

Article 2 has decided that the Republic of Turkey is a democratic state, which is to be governed by rule of law.

(y) Article 5

According to Article 5, one of the fundamental aims and duties of the State is to safeguard the indivisibility of democracy.

(c) National Sovereignty

(c-i) Ataturk’s View

National sovereignty cannot be transferred to anyone.

(c-ii) Turkish Constitution

Article 6 provides principles regarding national sovereignty:

  • (w) Nation
  • (x) Exercise of sovereignty
  • (y) Delegation of exercise of sovereignty
  • (z) State authority that does not come from Constitution

(w) Nation

Sovereignty belongs to the nation without any restriction or condition.

(x) Exercise Of Sovereignty

The Turkish nation shall exercise its sovereignty through the authorized organs.

(y) Delegation Of Exercise Of Sovereignty

The exercise of sovereignty shall not be delegated by any means to any individual, group or class.

(z) State authority that Does not Come From Constitution

No person or organ shall exercise any state authority that does not come from the Constitution.

(ii) Nationalism

Nationalism is the second principle of the Turkish ideology, and it promoted the concept of Turkism:

  • (a) Ataturk’s view
  • (b) Turkish Constitution

(a) Ataturk’s View

(a-i) Main Ideology

Nationalism is the main ideology of National War of Independence.

(a-ii) Items Of Turkish Nation

Political union, language union, homeland union and historical proximity are items of Turkish nation.

(a-iii) Turkish

Everyone is Turkish in Turkish public in spite of different races or religious.

(a-iv) Nature

Turkish is not aggressive, racist or offensive. Rather it is peaceful.

(b) Turkish Constitution

(b-i) Preamble

Preamble of the Constitution provides principles regarding nationalism:

  • (x) Eternal existence of Turkish nation
  • (y) Turkish existence & moral values of Turkishness
  • (z) United

(x) Eternal Existence Of Turkish nation

It affirms the eternal existence of the Turkish nation in line with the concept of nationalism.

(y) Turkish Existence & Moral Values Of Turkishness

No protection shall be accorded to an activity, which will be contrary to Turkish existence and moral values of Turkishness.

(z) United

All Turkish citizens are united in national honour and pride, in national joy and grief, in blessings and in burdens, and in every manifestation of national life.

(b-ii) Article 2

Article 2 has declared that the Republic of Turkey is loyal to the nationalism of Ataturk.

(iii) Populism

Populaism is a political approach, which strives to appeal to ordinary people, who feel that their concerns are disregarded established elite groups. Populism is third principle of Turkish ideology, and it discourages differences and conflicts between classes:

  • (a) Ataturk’s view
  • (b) Turkish Constitution

(a) Ataturk’s View

(a-i) Classes Between Turkish Public

There are no classes between Turkish public.

(a-ii) Conflicts Between Classes

Turkish populism rejects conflicts between classes.

(a-iii) Real Administrators Of Turkey

The villagers are the real administrators of Turkey.

(b) Turkish Constitution

Article 10 provides following principles regarding statism:

  • (b-i) Equal before law
  • (b-ii) Equal rights for men & women
  • (b-iii) Privilege

(b-i) Equal Before Law

Everyone is equal before the law without distinction as to language, race, colour, sex, political opinion, philosophical belief, religion and sect, or any such grounds.

(b-ii) Equal Rights For Men & Women

Men and women have equal rights.

(b-iii) Privilege

No privilege shall be granted to any individual, family, group or class.

(iv) Statism

Statism is the fourth principle of Turkish ideology, and it emerged as practical and pragmatic economic policy in Turkey:

  • (a) Ataturk’s view
  • (b) Turkish Constitution

(a) Ataturk’s View

(a-i) Socialist

The statism of Turkey is not socialist.

(a-ii) Moderate

Turkish statism is moderate.

(a-iii) Economical Independence

Economic independence is as important as independence.

(a-iv) Connection With Populism

Statism is for the public. Therefore, it has connection with populism.

(b) Turkish Statism

State was to regulate the country’s general economic activity and the state was to engage in areas where private enterprises are not willing to do so or where the private enterprises had proved to be inadequate or if national interest required it.

(v) Secularism

Separation of religion and state is the foundation of secularism, and secularism is the fifth principle of Turkish ideology:

  • (a) Ataturk’s view
  • (b) Turkish Constitution

(a) Ataturk’s View

Kemalist secularism did not merely mean separation of state and religion, but also the separation of religion from educational and legal affairs.

(b) Turkish Constitution

(b-i) Preamble

The Preamble states that sacred religious feelings shall absolutely not be involved in state affairs and politics

(b-ii) Article 2

Article 2 has settled that Turkey is a secular state.

(vi) Reformism

Reformism is the sixth principle of Turkish ideology, and it promoted a political program for transformation of Turkey into modern state:

  • (a) Ataturk’s view
  • (b) Turkish Constitution

(a) Ataturk’s Reforms

Kemal Ataturk made various reforms to make Turkey a modern civilized country:

  • (a-i) Political reforms
  • (a-ii) Social reforms
  • (a-iii) Legal reforms
  • (a-iv) Economic reforms

(a-v) New language

(a-i) Political Reforms

Sultanate and Caliph were abolished, and Turkey was made a Republic.

(a-ii) Social Reforms

Recognition of equal rights for men and women, adoption of solar system, declaration of Sunday as day of rest of the week, and adoption of international hours and measurements were the social reforms.

(a-iii) Legal Reforms

Abolishment of religious courts, introduction of secular law structure, and granting of social and political rights to women were legal reforms.

(a-iv) Economic Reforms

Encouragement of farmers and establishment of model farms, and industrial facilities were the economic reforms.

(a-v) New Language

 Turkey made a language reform; the Arabic script was replaced with Latin alphabet.

(b) Turkish Constitution

(b-i) Article 1

Article I has decided that the state of Turkey is Republic.

(b-ii) Article 10

Article 10 has granted equal right to men and women.

(b-iii) Preamble

The Preamble states that sacred religious feelings shall absolutely not be involved in state affairs and politics.

(3) Conclusion

It can be finally stated that Kemalism is a modernization philosophy, which worked to transform the multi-religious, multi-ethnic Ottoman Empire to the secular, democratic, & unitary Republic of Turkey. Kemalism sets the boundaries of the social process in the Turkish Reformation. Ataturk was the founder of Kemalism, and his doctrine was implemented as Turkish ideology.

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